Geological history of India

India is a land of great geological diversity. The subcontinent contains some of the oldest rocks in the world, as well as some of the youngest. It is home to the Himalaya, the world’s tallest mountains, as well as to the Thar Desert, one of the largest deserts in the world. India’s geologic history is complex, with several periods of intense tectonic activity separated by long periods of relative calm.

The Precambrian

The Precambrian is the earliest part of Earth’s history, from 4.6 billion years ago to 541 million years ago. It is divided into three parts: the Hadean, the Archean, and the Proterozoic. India’s Precambrian rocks are some of the oldest in the world.

The Hadean

The Hadean is the earliest part of the Precambrian, from 4.6 billion years ago to 4 billion years ago. Not much is known about this time period because no rocks from this time period have been found on the surface of the earth. The rocks that do exist from this time period are found in meteorites.

The Archean

The Archean is the second part of the Precambrian, from 4 billion years ago to 2.5 billion years ago. This was a time of intense tectonic activity, when the first continents were formed. The rocks from this time period are some of the oldest in the world.

The Proterozoic

The Proterozoic is the third and final part of the Precambrian, from 2.5 billion years ago to 541 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the first appearance of oxygen in the atmosphere and the first simple life forms. The rocks from this time period are some of the youngest in the world.

The Paleozoic

The Paleozoic is the first era of the Phanerozoic, the current eon of Earth’s history. It began 541 million years ago and ended 252 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first complex life forms and the formation of the first continents.

The Cambrian

The Cambrian is the first period of the Paleozoic, from 541 million years ago to 485 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first complex life forms. The rocks from this time period are some of the youngest in the world.

The Ordovician

The Ordovician is the second period of the Paleozoic, from 485 million years ago to 443 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first complex life forms and the formation of the first continents. The rocks from this time period are some of the oldest in the world.

The Silurian

The Silurian is the third period of the Paleozoic, from 443 million years ago to 419 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first complex life forms and the formation of the first continents. The rocks from this time period are some of the oldest in the world.

The Devonian

The Devonian is the fourth period of the Paleozoic, from 419 million years ago to 358 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first complex life forms and the formation of the first continents. The rocks from this time period are some of the oldest in the world.

The Carboniferous

The Carboniferous is the fifth period of the Paleozoic, from 358 million years ago to 298 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first complex life forms and the formation of the first continents. The rocks from this time period are some of the youngest in the world.

The Permian

The Permian is the sixth and final period of the Paleozoic, from 298 million years ago to 252 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first complex life forms and the formation of the first continents. The rocks from this time period are some of the oldest in the world.

The Mesozoic

The Mesozoic is the second era of the Phanerozoic, the current eon of Earth’s history. It began 252 million years ago and ended 66 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first dinosaurs and the formation of the first continents.

The Triassic

The Triassic is the first period of the Mesozoic, from 252 million years ago to 201 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first dinosaurs and the formation of the first continents. The rocks from this time period are some of the youngest in the world.

The Jurassic

The Jurassic is the second period of the Mesozoic, from 201 million years ago to 145 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first dinosaurs and the formation of the first continents. The rocks from this time period are some of the oldest in the world.

The Cretaceous

The Cretaceous is the third and final period of the Mesozoic, from 145 million years ago to 66 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first dinosaurs and the formation of the first continents. The rocks from this time period are some of the oldest in the world.

The Cenozoic

The Cenozoic is the third and final era of the Phanerozoic, the current eon of Earth’s history. It began 66 million years ago and continues to the present day. This is the age of the dinosaurs, the age of the mammals, and the age of humans.

The Paleogene

The Paleogene is the first period of the Cenozoic, from 66 million years ago to 23 million years ago. This was a time of great change on Earth, with the rise of the first dinosaurs and the formation of the first continents. The rocks from this time period are some of the youngest in the world.

The Neogene

The Neogene is the second and final period of the Cenozoic, from 23 million years ago to the present day. This is the age of the dinosaurs, the age of the mammals, and the age of humans. The rocks from this time period are some of the oldest in the world.

Conclusion

India’s geologic history is complex and fascinating. The subcontinent has some of the oldest rocks in the world, as well as some of the youngest. It is home to the Himalaya, the world’s tallest mountains, as well as to the Thar Desert, one of the largest deserts in the world. India’s geologic history is a story of intense tectonic activity punctuated by long periods of relative calm.